Daibutsu in Nara

Nara: The Ancient Capital of Japan

Tiếng Việt

Overshadowed by its more famous neighbours, the city of Nara is usually omitted from the itinerary of many time-pressed travellers. But as Japan’s first permanent capital, Nara boasts many important scenic and historical sites. Thus, it’s definitively worth spending one or two days here to enjoy the atmosphere of ancient Japan.


To many visitors to Japan, Nara (奈良) is a mere day-trip destination less than one hour from Kyoto and Osaka. It’s widely known for the iconic temple of Todai-ji and the Nara Park where hundreds of sika deer freely roam. But more than 1300 years ago, this city was actually the first permanent capital of Japan.

A Brief History of Nara

Prior to the Nara Period, the seat of the Japanese government had been frequently moved from place to place. In fact, it was customary for the capital to be relocated with the beginning of each new reign. This practice changed when Empress Genmei established the imperial court in Heijō (currently Nara) in 708. Her successors also followed suit, and thus the city had become the capital of Japan for over 80 years.

During this period, Buddhism was declared as “guardian of the state” and actively promoted throughout Japan. Buddhist monks, therefore, became authoritative figures, gaining a lot of respect and influence. Nevertheless, the political ambition of the Buddhist temples in Nara was so immense that it became a serious threat to the government. As a result, Emperor Kammu decided to move the capital to Nagaoka in 784, and a few years later to Kyoto in order to lower the temple’s influence on state affairs.

Although its heyday is long gone, Nara is still able to retain its ancient atmosphere. Many of its historic treasures remain in good condition, including artefacts dating back to the Nara period, as well as some of Japan’s oldest and largest buildings. They are mostly located in Nara Park (奈良公園) – an expansive green area in the centre of the city.

Todai-ji

Presiding over the vast Nara Park, Tōdai-ji (東大寺) is the city’s most recognisable architecture and one of Japan’s most famous temples. It was constructed in 752 as the central administration for all six provincial temples of different Buddhist schools in Japan at that time. Extending over 2850 m², the current temple’s main hall was one of the world’s largest wooden structures. However, the hall is still 30 percent smaller than its original version which was unfortunately destroyed by fire.

Chumon Gate at Tōdai-ji
The iconic Tōdai-ji Temple in Nara

Positioned at the centre of the temple is the Daibutsu – a 16-metre high, gilt bronze statue of Vairocana. It was the centrepiece of various rituals, such as prayers for the peace of the nation, protection against epidemics, bountiful crops, as well as worldly prosperity. Either side of the statue are flanked by two seated Bodhisattvas, and there are Four Heavenly Kings standing at the corners of the main hall. The Buddha was also identified with the Sun Goddess, reflecting a syncretism of Buddhism and Shinto.

Daibutsu – The world’s largest bronze statue
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Kasuga Taisha

Characterised by a sloping roof extending over the front of the main building, Kasuga Taisha (春日大社) is Nara’s most celebrated Shinto shrine. It’s dedicated to the four guardian deities of Japan and consists of multiple buildings. The shrine is located in the southern part of Nara Park and was established at the same time as the capital.

As the tutelary shrine of the Fujiwara – Japan’s most powerful clan during most of the Nara and Heian periods, Kasuga Taisha was, therefore, an object of imperial patronage. That’s why it was rebuilt several times over centuries, similar to the Ise Shrines in Mie. In the case of Kasuga Taisha, however, this custom was discontinued at the end of the Meiji Period.

The distinctive architectural style of Kasuga Taisha

The Lanterns of Kasuga Taisha

Kasuga Taisha is also famous for its lanterns, which have been donated by worshippers to express their gratitude and support to the shrine. There are 3000 stone lanterns lining the path that leads up to the shrine. They symbolise the guiding light of Shinto. And the number 3000 represents the 3000 branches of the Kasuga shrine spreading throughout Japan.

Adding to that are hundreds of bronze lanterns hanging inside the inner buildings. These lanterns are only lit twice a year during two Lantern Festivals: one in early February and one in mid-August. But visitors to Kasuga Taisha can still see some lit-up lanterns inside a small room at the back of the temple.

The stone lanterns of Kasuga Taisha
The bronze lanterns dangle from the temple buildings
Lit-up lanterns
The lanterns of Kasuga Taisha
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The Nara Deer

When speaking of Nara, the image of freely roaming deer might come up in many people’s minds. Worshipped as the messengers of the Shinto kami, the deer has long been an unseparated part of Nara. The city hosts more than 1200 sika deer which often gathered in and around Nara Park. Visitors can encounter them virtually everywhere, from the ground of the Tōdai-ji, the Wakayama hills to the lantern-lined entrance of the Kasuga Taisha. Even the receptionist at our ryokan jokingly recommended that: “Follow the deer and you will be able to see all of Nara’s main attraction.”

Nara’s deer – The messengers of the Shinto gods
Wakayama hill – A favourite spot of the deer. It’s also a perfect place to have a panoramic view of Nara. But beware of deer poop!

Similar to the deer in Miyajima, Nara’s deer have become accustomed to humans. That’s why they are generally tame. However, some might turn aggressive if they think you will feed them. Some are wiser and have learned to bow to visitors to ask to be fed. And good behaviour usually brings more reward. The deer’s favourite snack is crackers that are sold for 150¥ per pack.

It’s breakfast time!

Practical Information about Nara

  • Nara is easily accessible by trains from both Kyoto and Osaka. It takes less than one hour and you can choose either the Japan Railways (JR) or Kintetsu Railways.
  • The advantage of taking JR train is that the fare is covered by JR Pass. But a trip with Kintetsu will take less time and the station is much closer to Nara Park than JR station.
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33 thoughts on “Nara: The Ancient Capital of Japan”

  1. Nemorino – Frankfurt am Main, Germany – Hello, my name’s Don. I’m an American living in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, where I teach, ride a bicycle and go to the opera. You can find me at https://operasandcycling.com/
    Nemorino says:

    I like the way you write these reports in Tiếng Việt as well as Tiếng Ahn.

    1. Thank you, Don! 🙂 When I first published this blog, I chose English as my primary language. But then my mom asked whether I could write it in Vietnamese as well, because she and her friend want to read it. As baby boomers, they speak very little English, and Google Translate is so unreliable (at least in the translation of Vietnamese) 🙂

  2. Jolene – Sydney, Australia – Jolene is a banker by trade, a writer at heart, and is a contributor to Thought Catalog. You are welcome to peek into her adventures and reflections on films and life at "SoMuchToTellYou", her ultimate love affair with words.
    Jolene says:

    Lovely pics especially the one of chumon gate.

  3. The contrast of colors between the bronze lanterns and the orange wooden posts is really eye catching. Wonderful post.

  4. Bama – Jakarta, Indonesia – Based in Jakarta, always curious about the world, always fascinated by ancient temples, easily pleased by food.
    Bama says:

    Just last week I finished writing my own post on Nara, but unlike the day when you went there, it happened to be cloudy when I visited Nara. It was a very nice day trip from Kyoto, and despite the grey skies Todai-ji was still an impressive sight.

    1. It’s huge, isn’t it? I have seen many Buddha statues, but this one is surely one-of-a-kind 🙂 I was also impressed by how vast the park is. If you don’t know, you can easily mistake it as a forest, especially in the early morning or late at night.

  5. AthenaCreativeWeb – Creative knowledge, skills and experience applied in a vast array of contexts for the betterment of human beings and non-human beings.
    AthenaCreativeWeb says:

    Hi Len thanks for these articles my bf and I will be visiting Japan soon and will surely check out this recommendation of yours. I love your photos and style of writing too very engaging

    1. Thank you for your very kind words! I am glad that my post can help you plan your trip. If you have any further question, feel free to ask 🙂

  6. Forestwood – A philosophic Australian writes here, one who admits to loving Scandinavia. I'm interested in global politics, but scratch the surface and you'll find I am a practical Environmentalist with an Egalitarian bent trying to unleash a little creativity. Scandinavian culture, literature and traditions are close to my heart, even though I am Australian. Travel broadens the mind, so I travel whenever I can. I am an avid reader, I enjoy photography, writing and a variety of crafts, particularly traditional art forms. You are always welcome to stop by at S.t.P.A.
    Forestwood says:

    One of our favourite spots in Japan. We visited two days in a row! Beautiful images, Len!

    1. Thank you! What do you like most about Nara? My favourite was the deer. Some are pretty bold, while a few are really tamed. Can’t resist giving them crackers 😀

      1. Forestwood – A philosophic Australian writes here, one who admits to loving Scandinavia. I'm interested in global politics, but scratch the surface and you'll find I am a practical Environmentalist with an Egalitarian bent trying to unleash a little creativity. Scandinavian culture, literature and traditions are close to my heart, even though I am Australian. Travel broadens the mind, so I travel whenever I can. I am an avid reader, I enjoy photography, writing and a variety of crafts, particularly traditional art forms. You are always welcome to stop by at S.t.P.A.
        Forestwood says:

        Well, we knew to bow to them – so as they would bow to us! ( before giving them the crackers). We had some great fun – some chased us around. It was all about the deer and the beautiful shrines at Nara. Fantastic place.

  7. Len sống ở VN hay nước ngoài? Nước nào? Học tiếng Anh từ bao giờ? Học ở đâu? Học tiếng Việt được bao nhiêu năm? Len viết tiếng Anh và tiếng Việt đều hay.

    1. Dạ cám ơn cô 😀 Cháu về Sài Gòn được khoảng 2 năm rồi ạ. Trước đó thì ở Đức, nhưng thuộc dạng du học sinh thôi ạ. Từ hồi cấp 1 cháu đã học tiếng Anh rồi nên đọc và viết ok. Nhưng nói thì hay bị pha tiếng Đức. Kiểu viết sao thì phát âm vậy 🙂

  8. Wonderful post and photos. I am enjoying your Japan series 🙂
    Favourite place in Japan? Is it Nara?

    1. Well, I’ve only been in Kansai and Chugoku (West Japan), so I cannot tell which place in Japan I do like most. But I enjoy the atmosphere of Nara, the food scene of Osaka, as well as the sunset at Miyajima 😛

  9. I’ve skipped Nara both times I was in the Kyoto/Osaka area because I ran out of time! Next time I’ll be sure to visit 🙂

  10. Absolutely breath taking images. I didn’t know about this wonderful destination – Nara! Thank you for sharing the information.

  11. làm mình nhớ đến dòng họ Nara trong Naruto. Tks bạn vì bài viết này, 1 ngày nào đó quay lại Nhật mình sẽ đến đây ^^

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