A busy commuter highway was transformed into a nature-filled public area. An abandoned stadium was replaced by a world-class exhibition center. And on the site of the old campus, a man-made canyon was created. Seoul has received a major facelift in the last few years. From a mere industrial center in the 1960s, it has grown into a modern, eco-friendly capital that many cities in the world want to model after.
Following the Korean War (1950 – 1953), the city of Seoul was left with nothing but rubble. Bridges, streets, and many other infrastructures suffered severe damage as a result of bombings and artillery strikes. To accommodate the economic and population growth, major urban development projects that focus on reconstruction and modernization were carried out.
However, this kind of rapid expansion brought massive environmental problems to Seoul citizens, especially those in the downtown area. As a result, the government and urban planners must think of a way to regenerate the city.
1. Cheonggyecheon Stream
One of Seoul’s most remarkable changes has been the regeneration of the Cheonggyecheon Stream. Running through Seoul downtown, this stream was highly polluted and used to be an open sewer in the 1940s. To remove this eyesore and the stench from its dirty waters, the authorities paved over Cheonggyecheon Stream with concrete, and later with an elevated four-lane highway. The stream seemingly disappeared from the eyes of the public. Yet the area beneath the freeway was still in appalling condition. Worse, it was turned into a hotbed of criminal activity.
Things only started to change in 2003, when the city pursued a more sustainable development plan. Within 29 months, the old highway was completely demolished and Cheonggyecheon Stream was transformed into an inner-city green haven. By pumping clean water from the Han River, the dried stream returned to its original state. Its ecological system is also gradually reviving. Furthermore, as space for cars was replaced by trees and pedestrians, air pollution significantly decreased in the area. And once again, Seoul citizens can enjoy nature directly at their front doors.
- Starting from Cheonggye Plaza (Subway line 5, Gwanghwamun, Exit 5), the stream passes under a total of 22 bridges before flowing into the Han River. A few attractions can be found along its length, including Insa-dong and Dongdaemun Design Plaza.
- On several occasions, the stream serves as an open-air exhibition where people can enjoy various art objects along the stream.
2. Dongdaemun Design Plaza
Another regeneration project that has caught international attention is the Dongdaemun Design Plaza (DDP). On the site of an abandoned stadium, the world-renowned architect, Zaha Hadid created the most peculiar architecture in Seoul. It appears like a giant alien spaceship, with “powerful, curving forms of elongated structures”. There seems to be no sharp angle, both inside and outside of the building.
Comprises four halls, the DDP serves as the key venue for design-related shows, conferences, exhibitions, as well as other cultural gatherings. As Seoul aims for a more eco-friendly urban design, several ecological features are integrated into the building. For example, the double-skin facade to reduce heat absorption, solar panels, and an in-house water recycling system. An expansive lawn is also placed on the walkable roof, bringing a slice of nature to crowded Seoul downtown.
- Conveniently located at the center of Dongdaemun district, DDP is easily accessible by subway Line 2, 4, and 5. Station: Dongdaemun History and Culture Park.
- Most halls and exhibitions close at 19:00, with the exception of the Museum Hall where you can shop at the Design Market or have a coffee at the Design Rest Area.
3. Eunhwa University
Trace of regeneration can also be found outside the city core. One typical example is the Eunhwa University in Shinchon-dong. Belonging to one of the most prestigious universities in South Korea, this institute attracts thousands of new students each year. As the number of enrollments increases, a “larger than site” response is necessary. Designed by Dominique Perrault Architecture, the new campus complex is part building, part landscape, and part sculpture.
It resembles a canyon, with two linear educational buildings sandwiching an elongated plaza. Aside from creating rooms for lectures and other recreational activities, this “canyon” brings natural light into the buildings which are technically underground. It also offers students and residents in the area a direct route to travel through the campus. The regeneration project is topped with two beautiful gardens, providing extra green spaces for the university as well as the city.
- Eunwha University is located in Hongdae and can be reached by Subway line 2. Station: Eunwha University, Exit 2 or 3.