Hanoi has a rich history, dating back as far as the 11th century.
The citadel was first built in 1010 by Ly Thai To, the first king of an independent Dai Viet.
In the next seven centuries, the citadel was expanded. Tran, Le, and finally Nguyen dynasty, all left traces here. It remained the seat of power until 1810.
The few edifices that are still standing today are the southern gate, the flag tower, the entrance staircase of the Kinh Thien Palace.
By the early 2000s, a systematical excavation took place at 18 Hoang Dieu.
The foundations of the imperial city were found, including remnants of old palaces, ancient roads, water wells.
A wealth of monuments and relics were also unearthed. They reflect religious and philosophical ideas, as well as artistic expressions.
Temple of Literature is an outstanding example of pre-colonial architecture.
It was Vietnam's first university built in 1070 by King Ly Thanh Tong. Under the reign of subsequent dynasties, the admission became significantly more egalitarian.
Khue Van Pavillion - an icon of Hanoi.
Hanoi Old Quarter has a history that spans more than a thousand years.
Starting as an alligator-infested swamp, it evolved into a crafts district in the 11th century when King Ly Thai To built the imperial citadel. Soon after, skilled craftsmen migrated to the city.
The craftsmen worked and lived together in a specific area. They gave the name of their crafts to the designated streets.
Hanoi French Quarter evokes the image of Paris in the last century.
From building’s structure to elaborate decoration, features of French architecture was visible at every turn.
The Opera House is the most representative of many French architectures in Hanoi. Finished in 1911, it replicates the famous Palais Garnier. However, the decoration is somewhat simpler.
An ornated window and balcony in Hanoi French Quarter.
The Soul of Old Hanoi